First Industrial Revolution
From the 18th to 19th centuries in Europe and America, this primarily agrarian period’s mostly rural societies transitioned urban industrial centers located. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution.
Second Industrial Revolution
Taking place between 1870 and 1914, just before World War I. It was a period of growth for pre-existing industries and expansion of new ones, such as steel, oil, and electricity, and used electric power to create mass production. Major technological advances during this period included the telephone, light bulb, phonograph, and the internal combustion engine.
Third Industrial Revolution
The Third Industrial Revolution, or the Digital Revolution, refers to the advancement of technology from analog electronic and mechanical devices to the digital technology available today. The era started during the 1980s and is ongoing. Advancements during the Third Industrial Revolution include the personal computer, the internet, and information and communications technology (ICT)
The Fourth Industrial rEvolution
4IR Culture as a Technology
This period builds upon the advent of mainstream digital hardware and software, representing new ways in which technology becomes embedded within societies and even the human body.
The Fourth Industrial Revolution is marked by emerging technology breakthroughs in a number of fields, including robotics, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, quantum computing, biotechnology, The Internet of Things (IoT), 3D printing and autonomous vehicles.
In his book, The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Schwab describes how this fourth revolution is fundamentally different from the previous three, which were characterized mainly by advances in mechanical technology. The underlying basis for 4IR lies in advances in communication and connectivity rather than technology.
These technologies have great potential to continue to enable the connection of billions of network-aware people, drastically improve the efficiency and efficacy of individuals, families, communities, while helping regenerate the natural environment through better environmental resource and human asset management.